History: Nizhny Novgorod was founded in 1221 by Grand Duke Georgy Vsevolodovich. In the XIV century (1341-1392) it was the capital of the grand principality, in XV-XVII centuries – the center of the district, and from 1714 to 1929 – the center of governorate. In 1929-1932 it became the center of Nizhny Novgorod region. On October 7, 1932 the city was named after the writer A.M. Gorky. On October 22, 1990, according to referendum decision, under the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, the legacy name was restored.
Географическое положение: Nizhny Novgorod is located in the Central European part of Russia at the confluence of rivers Volga and Oka, within 439 km east of Moscow. The total area of the city is 46 000 hectares. Nizhny Novgorod is the capital of Volga Federal District, the center of Nizhny Novgorod region, and admitted capital of Volga-Vyatka economic zone.
Transport infrastructure includes an international airport, passenger and cargo river harbors, a large railway terminal. This helps to implement an idea of extending the transnational European tunnel up to Nizhny Novgorod and to make the region more attractive to visitors.
Population: Nizhny Novgorod region and its administrative center is mostly populated by Russians (95% of the total population according to the last census). Moreover, representatives of about 100 nationalities reside in Nizhny Novgorod. At the present time, 28 national and cultural communities are legally registered in the city.
Industry and economy: The industrial sector provides 50-60% of gross product of the city: it is about 40% of the total industrial output of Nizhny Novgorod region.
|Headmost industries are machine building, metalwork, iron and non-ferrous metallurgy, food, medical, consumer and woodwork industries (about 69% of total output product). 137 large and medium-sized enterprises of 14 main industries provide jobs for 179 thousand of people (41% of the total employees number).|
Major enterprises: OJSC GAZ, OJSC Nizhny Novgorod Sokol Aircraft-building Plant, OJSC Nizhny Novgorod Machine-building Plant, OJSC Krasnoye Sormovo Factory, OJSC A. S. Popov GZAS plant, OJSC NITEL, OJSC RUMO (Dvigatel Revolyutsii), OJSC Normal, OJSC Gidromash, OJSC Krasny Yakor, OJSC Volgovyatskvtortsvetmet, OJSC Orgsintez, CJSC AviaTehMas, OJSC Nizhfarm, CJSC Mayak, and others.
Congenial investment climate is represented in Nizhny Novgorod. Today over 100 foreign-owned enterprises functionate in the city. Some large-scale projects are realized in partnership with foreign corporations. The subsidiaries of European Bank for Reconstruction and Development operate in Nizhny Novgorod, some of them credit small and medium-sized businesses.
For more than 10 years Nizhny Novgorod is open to foreign visitors. Nizhny Novgorod’s sister cities are: Tampere (Finland), Linz (Austria), Philadelphia (USA), Jinan (China), Essen (Germany), Kharkov (Ukraine), Matanzas (Cuba), Suwon (Korea), Novi Sad (Serbia), Minsk (Belarus). Partner cities are: Bologna (Italy), Brno (Czech Republic), Leipzig (Germany).
Tourism potential: Nowadays Nizhny Novgorod is the city where natural wealth, industrial advance and rich cultural heritage are combined uniquely. Many historical landmarks in Nizhny Novgorod are intact – for that reason UNESCO included Nizhny Novgorod in the world 100 cities of the greatest historical and cultural value list.
|Rozhdestvenskaya street view.
Rozhdestvenskaya street is the unique open-air museum with all the houses made of stone, the earliest of which were built in the middle of the XVIII century.
Nizhny Novgorod holds a specific place at travel market of Russia and Volga Federal District in particular. The city has a well developed transport infrastructure (highways, river harbor, airport, railway station, etc.), as well as stable and emerging relationships with cities and regions of Volga Federal District and Central Russia.
Nizhny Novgorod peculiar tourism potential is substantially high. It is based on such factors as plenty of historical and cultural landmarks, many of which are unique; richness and diversity of natural landscapes; relatively healthy ecological environment; favorable geopolitical location.
One of the largest Russian exhibition and conference centers – national CJCS Nizhegorodskaya Yarmarka – is located in Nizhny Novgorod. It is a modern expocenter, annually holding about 60 forums, exhibitions and congresses of local and international concern: the International Forum "Russia United”, the International Scientific and Industrial Forum Great Rivers/ICEF, Russian Architectural and Construction Forum, the National Banking Forum, and others.
Nizhny Novgorod on the map:
This article uses the information from the official website of the Nizhny Novgorod region government:
Nizhny Novgorod on photos: